Professionelle Audiotechnik - Dynacord
Störungsbehebung

Störungsbehebung

Störungsbehebung

WECHSELSPANNUNG

Elektrischer Strom, der die Richtung ständig ändert.

Verstärker

Eine elektronisches Gerät, das verwendet wird, um die Stärke des eingespeisten Audiosignals zu erhöhen.

AMPLITUDE

Die relative Stärke des Signals.

ARRAY

Ein Lautsprechersystem, das aus einer Reihe von Lautsprecherelementen besteht, die miteinander verbunden sind.

Ein Säulenarray - Im Allgemeinen ein einzelnes Gehäuse mit Array-Komponenten, die linear angeordnet sind, um eine bestimmte Richtwirkung für verschiedene Frequenzbereiche zu erreichen.

Ein Array mit gleichmäßiger Krümmung - Ein Array von mehreren Boxen, die jeweils im gleichen Winkel zwischen den einzelnen Arrayelementen angeordnet sind.

Ein Line-Array ist ein Lautsprechersystem, das aus mehreren Lautsprecherelementen besteht, die in einer Linie zu einer einzigen Soundquelle verbunden sind. Die Lautsprecher müssen möglichst eng aneinander liegen, um die Schallwellen möglichst weit und homogen abzustrahlen.

ELEKTRONISCH SYMMETRISCHE VERBINDUNG

Eine elektronisch symmetrische Verbindung ermöglicht die Verwendung langer Kabel und reduziert gleichzeitig die Anfälligkeit für externe Störungen. Professionelle Audioprodukte unterstützen eine symmetrische Verbindung. Ein typisches symmetrisches Kabel enthält zwei identische Drähte, die miteinander verdrillt und dann mit einem dritten Leiter umwickelt werden, der als Schirm dient. Dreipolige XLR-Stecker sind der am weitesten verbreitete symmetrische Stecker, aber auch Viertel-Zoll (¼" oder 6,35 mm) TRS-Stecker (Tip-Ring-Sleeve) werden häufig verwendet.

BANDBREITE

Der Frequenzbereich, den ein Verstärker oder Wandler erzeugt.

TRÄGERSIGNAL

Ein fortlaufendes Signal mit einer bestimmten Frequenz, das durch ein zweites, datenführendes Signal moduliert werden kann.

KANAL

Die Festlegung eines eindeutigen Pfades in einem Gerät vom Eingang bis zum Ausgang.

CLIPPING

Audioverzerrungen, die hervorgerufen werden wenn ein Verstärker mehr Leistung erzeugt als seine Schallquelle liefern kann (z.B. Übersteuerung eines Verstärkers). Das Signal wird abgeschaltet, wenn es die maximale Belastbarkeit erreicht hat, was zu clipping führt.

KAMM-FILTER EFFEKT

Auch Phasenauslöschung genannt. Ein Kammfilter addiert eine verzögerte Version eines Signals zu sich selbst und verursacht Störungen. Eine Kammfilterung kann auftreten, wenn zwei Lautsprecher das gleiche Signal in unterschiedlichen Abständen vom Hörer wiedergeben. In einem geschlossenen Raum hört der Zuhörer eine Mischung aus direktem Schall und reflektiertem Schall. Da der reflektierte Schall einen längeren Weg nimmt, klingt er wie eine verzögerte Version des Direktschalls, die als Kamm-Filter bezeichnet wird.

COMPANDING

Reduzierung des Dynamikbereichs eines Signals für die Aufnahme und anschließende Vergrößerung auf den ursprünglichen Wert für Wiedergabe oder Playback.

TREIBER

Ein dynamischer Hochton-Lautsprecher.

LEITER

Material, das den Stromfluss ermöglicht.

ABSTRAHLVERHALTEN

Die Richtcharakteristik eines Lautsprechersystems, die je nach Frequenz und Ton variieren kann.

FREQUENZWEICHE

Eine elektrische Schaltung (passiv oder aktiv), die aus einer Kombination von Filtern besteht, mit denen eine Tonfrequenz in Segmente unterteilt wird, die für die Verwendung durch einen einzelnen Lautsprecher geeignet sind.

Aktive Frequenzweichen teilen Frequenzbänder vor der Verstärkung des Audiosignals. Passive Frequenzweichen teilen Frequenzbänder nach Verstärkung des Audiosignals, kurz bevor sie die einzelnen Lautsprecherkomponenten erreichen.

Passive Netzwerke können zu Leistungsverlusten führen und sind in der Regel nicht in der Lage, die Feinabstimmung und Anpassung vorzunehmen, die eine aktive Frequenzweiche bietet.

STROM

Elektrischer Strom ist der Stromfluss der elektrischen Ladung durch einen Leiter, wie beispielsweise Draht.

CYCLES PER SECOND (CPS)

One cycle is the transition of a sine wave from 0 to positive crest down through 0 to the negative crst and back to 0. One full cycle is shown in this graph. Cycles per Second refers to the number of times a full cycle is repeated in the period of one second. Cycles per Second is usually expressed as hertz (Hz). One hertz is equal to one cycle per second.

Direct Current

An electric current that does not change direction of flow.

Decibel (dB)

A logarithmic scale that is used to measure signal levels. Sound pressure level (SPL) can be measured in dB.

Good to Know: Doubling electrical power only yields an increase of +3 dB. Increasing the power tenfold will yield an increase of +10 dB and is a doubling of perceived loudness.

dBu

Decibels unloaded; reference voltage for professional applications. The reference voltage for the decibel unloaded (0 dBu) is the voltage required to produce 1 milliwatt (mW) of power across a 600 Ω load (approximately 0.7746 VRMS). The most common nominal level for professional equipment is +4 dBu.

dBV

Decibel volts; reference voltage for consumer applications. The reference voltage for the decibel volt (0 dBV) is 1 VRMS, which is the voltage required to produce 1 mW of power across a 1 kilohm (kΩ) load. The most common nominal level for consumer audio equipment is −10 dBV.

Delay

An electronic circuit that delays the audio signal for a short period. Used to compensate for time differences of multiple signals and align them into a coherent signal, e.g. in active x-overs to align the individual transducers in a cabinet, but also to align speakers placed in different locations (delay line).

Digital Signal Processor (DSP)

A device which receives an audio signal and trypicall.

Direct Box (DI Box)

A device that enables a musical instrument to be connected directly to a mic- or line-level mixer input.

Distortion

The alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of a sound wave which changes the sound. Distortion is usually unwanted, but it may be stylistically desirable for certain instruments, such as an electric guitar. The three principal types of intentional distortion effects are overdrive, distortion, and fuzz.

Diversity

The method of minimizing the effects of multipath delays that can create drop-outs of the RF signal.

Efficiency (in Loudspeakers)

Sound power output divided by the electrical power input.

Frequency

The number of times a wave repeats per second, measured in Hertz (Hz).

Frequency Response is given as the range of frequencies between the points at the upper and lower ends of the sounds spectrum, where the speaker response is 3 dB below the nominal output level. This indicates that the system is starting to have a reduced output below this frequency.

Frequency Range is given as the range of frequencies between the points at the upper and lower ends of the sound spectrum, where the speaker response is 10 dB below the nominal output level. This is commonly referred to as the lower and upper limit of the system’s usable output. Anything below or above this frequency range should not be expected to be reproduced from the system.

Filter

A frequency-dependent amplifier circuit designed to amplify, pass, or attenuate certain frequency ranges.

A Low-Pass Filter allows frequencies below its cutoff to pass and progressively attenuates frequencies above the cutoff.

A High-Pass Filter allows frequencies above its cutoff to pass and progressively attenuates frequencies below the cutoff.

A Bandpass Filter passes frequencies between its two cutoff frequencies; attenuates frequencies outside the range Band-Reject Filter –attenuates frequencies between its two cutoff frequencies; passes frequencies not within the “reject” range.

Ground

Ground, or “earth,” is the point of zero voltage in a circuit or system. It’s the reference point from which all other voltages are measured. Professional audio equipment should maintain a good technical ground and operate with a good safety ground.

Hertz

Units of frequency. One hertz is equal to one cycle per second.

Impedance (Z)

The amount of resistance offered by an electronic circuit or device to the (AC) current that flows through it. It is commonly represented by the mathematical symbol “Z” and is measured in Ohms.

Input

Connection from a signal source.

Inverse Square Law

Each doubling of distance from a sound’s point source results in a -6 dB change in SPL.

Limiter

A circuit that allows signals below a specified input power to pass unaffected while attenuating the peaks of stronger signals that exceed this input power. A limiter is a compressor with a high ratio and, generally, a fast attack time.

Loudspeaker

An electroacoustic transducer that produces sound in response to an electrical audio signal input. May refer to individual transducers (or “drivers”) or to complete speaker systems consisting of more than one. To reproduce a wide range of frequencies, most loudspeaker systems use more than one driver. Individual drivers reproduce different frequency ranges.

Subwoofer
A loudspeaker designed to reproduce bass frequencies.

Tweeter
A small loudspeaker designed for the reproduction of highfrequency sounds.

Woofer
A loudspeaker designed for the reproduction of low-frequency sounds.

Magnitude

The value of a voltage or current waveform.

Mixing Console

Also called a soundboard, a mixing console is an electronic device for combining, routing, and changing the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals.

Multipath

In wireless systems, it is interference due to multiple arrivals of the same RF signal due to reflections off nearby objects. The difference in path lengths creates different arrival times, thus causing signal cancellation and degradation.

Ohm (Ω)

Measurement of the resistance in an electrical conductor, which can be calculated using the R = V / I (resistance = voltage/current) equation.

Power Rating

The electrical output of the amplifier module based on a set of test parameters. There are many different kinds of power ratings for amplifiers and speakers, which can make comparisons difficult unless you identify the ratings that use the same test parameters.

Preamp

Preamplifier; device that amplifies the weak electrical signals from microphones and pickups used to record voices and musical instruments to professional line level.

Proximity Effect

An increase in bass or low frequency response when a sound source is close to a microphone. Proximity effect is caused by the ports that create directional polar pickup patterns, so omnidirectional mics are not affected.

Receiver

An electronic device, with an antenna, that receives audio waves and converts the information carried by them to an audio signal. The antenna intercepts electromagnetic waves and converts them to alternating currents, which are applied to the receiver; the receiver extracts the audio. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the wanted audio frequency signal from all other signals.

Sensitivity (In Loudspeakers)

A certain number of decibels at 1 W electrical input, measured at 1 meter, often at a single frequency. Driver ratings based on the SPL for a given input are called sensitivity ratings.

Shielding

A shielded cable is an electrical cable of one or more insulated conductors enclosed by a common conductive layer. The shield may be composed of braided strands of metal, a non-braided spiral winding of copper tape, or a layer of conducting polymer. Usually, this shield is covered with a jacket. The shield reduces electrical noise and interference. In shielded signal cables the shield may act as the return path for the signal, or may act as screening only.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)

A measure that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

Signal Path/Chain

Path taken by a signal. This can either be from the input to the output of one device, or the path taken through many different devices (e.g., from microphone to mixing desk / signal processing devices then amplifier(s), speakers, etc.)

Signal Voltage

The effective voltage value of the signal that leaves or feeds an audio device.

Line Level
Within a sound system, signals of various levels enter a mixer, but the signal that leaves the mixer is at professional “line level.” The standard is +4 dBu or -10 dBV audio levels, or approximately 1V.

Mic Level
The relatively low-level signal (generally -40 dBV to -60 dBV) of microphone or pickup output that must be amplified to line level, where it is more easily manipulated by a mixing console.

Speaker Level
Signals stronger than line level that are used to drive headphones and loudspeaker. Produced by amplifiers.

Signaling Reference Voltage (dBu & dBV)

See entries for dBu and dBV

Sinusoidal (Sine) Wave

An oscillation whose waveform is that of a sine curve, e.g., a sound wave or and electrical wave. Audio signals are sine waves.

Sound Pressure Level (dB SPL)

Sound pressure level is a logarithmic measure of the effective pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. It's used to provide a measure for the "loudness" of a speaker system, stated in dB (or dBSPL).

Speakon

A type of cable connector mostly used in professional audio systems for connecting loudspeakers to amplifiers. Speakon connectors are a higher current-carrying alternative to other connectors for loudspeakers. NL4 is a type of Speakon connector that has four electrical connections.

Squelch

A function that mutes the audio output of a receiver when there isn’t a strong enough radio frequency (RF) signal present at the antennas. Most professional level wireless microphones have adjustable squelch.

Transmitter

An electronic device which produces radio frequency (RF) signal. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, which is applied to the antenna. When excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves.

Unbalanced Connection

Consumer audio products use unbalanced connections, or interfaces. An unbalanced connection requires the use of short audio cables and is susceptible to external interference. An unbalanced interface uses coaxial wire and connectors with two electrical contacts.

Voltage

Electric force or potential difference expressed in volts.

Watt (W)

A unit of power in the International System of Units equal to one joule per second. Watts of electrical power equals volts times amperes.

XLR Cable/Connector

A style of electrical connector most commonly associated with balanced audio interconnection.

Z

The electrical symbol for impedance.